sed_einzeiler

SED Einzeiler

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 HANDY ONE-LINERS FOR SED (Unix stream editor) Oct. 29, 1997
 compiled by Eric Pement <epement@jpusa.chi.il.us> version 4.3
 Latest version of this file is always at <http://www.wollery.demon.co.uk> 
 
 FILE SPACING:
 
 # double space a file
 sed G
 
 # triple space a file
 sed 'G;G'
 
 # undo double-spacing (assumes even-numbered lines are always blank)
 sed 'n;d'
 
 NUMBERING:
 
 # number each line of a file (simple left alignment). Using a tab (see
 # note on '\t' at end of file) instead of space will preserve margins.
 sed = filename | sed 'N;s/\n/\t/'
 
 # number each line of a file (number on left, right-aligned)
 sed = filename | sed 'N; s/^/ /; s/ *\(.\{6,\}\)\n/\1 /'
 
 # number each line of file, but only print numbers if line is not blank
 sed '/./=' filename | sed '/./N; s/\n/ /'
 
 # count lines (emulates "wc -l")
 sed -n '$='
 
 TEXT CONVERSION AND SUBSTITUTION:
 
 # IN UNIX ENVIRONMENT: convert DOS newlines (CR/LF) to Unix format
 sed 's/.$//'
 
 # IN DOS ENVIRONMENT: convert Unix newlines (LF) to DOS format
 sed 's/$//' # method 1
 sed -n p # method 2
 
 # delete leading whitespace (spaces, tabs) from front of each line
 # aligns all text flush left
 sed 's/^[ \t]*//' # see note on '\t' at end of file
 
 # delete trailing whitespace (spaces, tabs) from end of each line
 sed 's/[ \t]*$//' # see note on '\t' at end of file
 
 # delete BOTH leading and trailing whitespace from each line
 sed 's/^[ \t]*//;s/[ \t]*$//'
 
 # insert 5 blank spaces at beginning of each line (make page offset)
 sed 's/^/ /'
 
 # align all text flush right on a 79-column width
 sed -e :a -e 's/^.\{1,78\}$/ &/;ta' # set at 78 plus 1 space
 
 # center all text in the middle of 79-column width. In method 1,
 # spaces at the beginning of the line are significant, and trailing
 # spaces are appended at the end of the line. In method 2, spaces at
 # the beginning of the line are discarded in centering the line, and
 # no trailing spaces appear at the end of lines.
 sed -e :a -e 's/^.\{1,77\}$/ & /;ta' # method 1
 sed -e :a -e 's/^.\{1,77\}$/ &/;ta' -e 's/\( *\)\1/\1/' # method 2
 
 # substitute (find & replace) "foo" with "bar" on each line
 sed 's/foo/bar/' # replaces only 1st instance in a line
 sed 's/foo/bar/4' # replaces only 4th instance in a line
 sed 's/foo/bar/g' # replaces ALL instances in a line
 
 # substitute "foo" with "bar" ONLY for lines which contain "baz"
 sed '/baz/s/foo/bar/g'
 
 # substitute "foo" with "bar" EXCEPT for lines which contain "baz"
 sed '/baz/!s/foo/bar/g'
 
 # reverse order of lines (emulates "tac")
 sed '1!G;h;$!d'
 
 # reverse each character on the line (emulates "rev")
 sed '/\n/!G;s/\(.\)\(.*\n\)/&\2\1/;//D;s/.//' 
 
 # join pairs of lines side-by-side (like "paste")
 sed 'N;s/\n/ /' 
 
 SELECTIVE PRINTING OF CERTAIN LINES:
 
 # print first 10 lines of file (emulates behavior of "head")
 sed 10q
 
 # print first line of file (emulates "head -1")
 sed q
 
 # print last 10 lines of file (emulates "tail")
 sed -e :a -e '$q;N;11,$D;ba'
 
 # print last line of file (emulates "tail -1")
 sed '$!d'
 
 # print only lines which match regular expression (emulates "grep")
 sed -n '/regexp/p' # method 1
 sed '/regexp/!d' # method 2
 
 # print only lines which do NOT match regexp (emulates "grep -v")
 sed -n '/regexp/!p' # method 1, corresponds to above
 sed '/regexp/d' # method 2, simpler syntax
 
 # print 1 line of context before and after regexp, with line number
 # indicating where the regexp occurred (similar to "grep -A1 -B1")
 sed -n -e '/regexp/{=;x;1!p;g;$!N;p;D;}' -e h
 
 # grep for AAA and BBB and CCC (in any order)
 sed '/AAA/!d; /BBB/!d; /CCC/!d'
 
 # grep for AAA or BBB or CCC (emulates "egrep")
 sed -e '/AAA/b' -e '/BBB/b' -e '/CCC/b' -e d
 
 # print only lines of 65 characters or longer
 sed -n '/^.\{65\}/p'
 
 # print only lines of less than 65 characters
 sed -n '/^.\{65\}/!p' # method 1, corresponds to above
 sed '/^.\{65\}/d' # method 2, simpler syntax
 
 # print section of file from regular expression to end of file
 sed -n '/regexp/,$p'
 
 # print section of file based on line numbers (lines 8-12, inclusive)
 sed -n '8,12p' # method 1
 sed '8,12!d' # method 2
 
 # print line number 52
 sed -n '52p' # method 1
 sed '52!d' # method 2
 sed '52q;d' # method 3, efficient on large files
 
 # print section of file between two regular expressions (inclusive)
 sed -n '/Iowa/,/Montana/p' # case sensitive
 
 SELECTIVE DELETION OF CERTAIN LINES:
 
 # print all of file EXCEPT section between 2 regular expressions
 sed '/Iowa/,/Montana/d'
 
 # delete duplicate lines from a sorted file (emulates "uniq"). First
 # line in a set of duplicate lines is kept, the rest are deleted
 sed '$!N; /^\(.*\)\n\1$/!P; D'
 
 # delete ALL blank lines from a file (same as "grep '.' ")
 sed '/^$/d'
 
 # delete all CONSECUTIVE blank lines from file except the first; also
 # deletes all blank lines from top and end of file (emulates "cat -s")
 sed '/./,/^$/!d' # method 1, allows 0 blanks at top, 1 at EOF
 sed '/^$/N;/\n$/D' # method 2, allows 1 blank at top, 0 at EOF
 
 # delete all CONSECUTIVE blank lines from file except the first 2:
 sed '/^$/N;/\n$/N;//D' 
 
 # delete all leading blank lines at top of file
 sed '/./,$!d'
 
 # delete all trailing blank lines at end of file
 sed -e :a -e '/^\n*$/N;/\n$/ba'
 
 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS:
 
 # remove nroff overstrikes (char, backspace) from man pages
 sed "s/.`echo \\\b`//g" # double quotes required for Unix environment
 sed 's/.\x08//g' # hex expression for GNU sed (octal is "\010") 
 
 # get Usenet/e-mail message header
 sed '/^$/q' # deletes everything after first blank line
 
 # get Usenet/e-mail message body
 sed '1,/^$/d' # deletes everything up to first blank line
 
 # get Subject header, but remove initial "Subject: " portion
 sed '/^Subject: */!d; s///;q'
 
 # get return address header
 sed '/^Reply-To:/q; /^From:/h; /./d;g;q'
 
 # parse out the address proper. Pulls out the e-mail address by itself
 # from the 1-line return address header (see preceding script)
 sed 's/ *(.*)//; s/>.*//; s/.*[:<] *//' 
 
 # add a leading angle bracket and space to each line (quote a message)
 sed 's/^/> /
 
 # delete leading angle bracket & space from each line (unquote a message)
 sed 's/^> //'
 
 # remove most HTML tags (accommodates multiple-line tags)
 sed -e :a -e 's/<[^<]*>/ /g;/</{N;s/\n/ /;ba;}'
 
 # extract multi-part uuencoded binaries, removing extraneous header
 # info, so that only the uuencoded portion remains. Files passed to
 # sed must be passed in the proper order. Version 1 can be entered
 # from the command line; version 2 can be made into an executable
 # Unix shell script. (Modified from a script by Rahul Dhesi.)
 sed '/^end/,/^begin/d' file1 file2 ... fileX | uudecode # vers. 1
 sed '/^end/,/^begin/d' $* | uudecode # vers. 2
 
 # zip up each .TXT file individually, deleting the source file and
 # setting the name of each .ZIP file to the basename of the .TXT file
 # (under DOS: the "dir /b" switch returns bare filenames in all caps).
 echo @echo off >zipup.bat
 dir /b *.txt | sed "s/^\(.*\)\.TXT/pkzip -mo \1 \1.TXT/" >>zipup.bat
 
 TYPICAL USE: Sed takes one or more editing commands and applies all of
 them, in sequence, to each line of input. After all the commands have
 been applied to the first input line, that line is output and a second
 input line is taken for processing, and the cycle repeats. The
 preceding examples assume that input comes from the standard input
 device (i.e, the console, normally this will be piped input). One or
 more filenames can be appended to the command line if the input does
 not come from stdin. Output is sent to stdout (the screen). Thus:
 
 cat filename | sed '10q' # uses piped input
 sed '10q' filename # same effect, avoids a useless "cat"
 sed '10q' filename > newfile # redirects output to disk
 
 For additional syntax instructions, including the way to apply editing
 commands from a disk file instead of the command line, consult "sed &
 awk, 2nd Edition," by Dale Dougherty and Arnold Robbins (O'Reilly,
 1997; http://www.ora.com), "UNIX Text Processing," by Dale Dougherty
 and Tim O'Reilly (Hayden Books, 1987) or the tutorials by Mike Arst
 distributed in U-SEDIT2.ZIP (many sites). To fully exploit the power
 of sed, one must understand "regular expressions." For this, see
 "Mastering Regular Expressions" by Jeffrey Friedl (O'Reilly, 1997).
 The manual ("man") pages on Unix systems may be helpful (try "man
 sed", "man regexp", or the subsection on regular expressions in "man
 ed"), but man pages are notoriously difficult. They are not written to
 teach sed use or regexps to first-time users, but as a reference text
 for those already acquainted with these tools.
 
 QUOTING SYNTAX: The preceding examples use single quotes ('...')
 instead of double quotes ("...") to enclose editing commands, since
 sed is typically used on a Unix platform. Single quotes prevent the
 Unix shell from intrepreting the dollar sign ($) and backquotes
 (`...`), which are expanded by the shell if they are enclosed in
 double quotes. Users of the "csh" shell and derivatives will also need
 to quote the exclamation mark (!) with the backslash (i.e., \!) to
 properly run the examples listed above, even within single quotes.
 Versions of sed written for DOS invariably require double quotes
 ("...") instead of single quotes to enclose editing commands.
 
 USE OF '\t' IN SED SCRIPTS: For clarity in documentation, we have used
 the expression '\t' to indicate a tab character (0x09) in the scripts.
 However, most versions of sed do not recognize the '\t' abbreviation,
 so when typing these scripts from the command line, you should press
 the TAB key instead. '\t' is supported as a regular expression
 metacharacter in awk, perl, and in a few implementations of sed.
 
 VERSIONS OF SED: Versions of sed do differ, and some slight syntax
 variation is to be expected. In particular, most do not support the
 use of labels (:name) or branch instructions (b,t) within editing
 commands, except at the end of those commands. We have used the syntax
 which will be portable to most users of sed, even though the popular
 GNU versions of sed allow a more succinct syntax. When the reader sees
 a fairly long command such as this:
 
 sed -e '/AAA/b' -e '/BBB/b' -e '/CCC/b' -e d
 
 it is heartening to know that GNU sed will let you reduce it to:
 
 sed '/AAA/b;/BBB/b;/CCC/b;d'
 
 In addition, remember that while many versions of sed accept a command
 like "/one/ s/RE1/RE2/", some do NOT allow "/one/! s/RE1/RE2/", which
 contains space before the 's'. Omit the space when typing the command.
 
 OPTIMIZING FOR SPEED: If execution speed needs to be increased (due to
 large input files or slow processors or hard disks), substitution will
 be executed more quickly if the "find" expression is specified before
 giving the "s/.../.../" instruction. Thus: 
 
 sed 's/foo/bar/g' filename # standard replace command
 sed '/foo/ s/foo/bar/g' filename # executes more quickly
 sed '/foo/ s//bar/g' filename # shorthand sed syntax
 
 On line selection or deletion in which you only need to output lines
 from the first part of the file, a "quit" command (q) in the script
 will drastically reduce processing time for large files. Thus:
 
 sed -n '45,50p' filename # print line nos. 45-50 of a file
 sed -n '51q;45,50p' filename # same, but executes much faster
 
 If you have any additional scripts to contribute or if you find errors
 in this document, please send e-mail to the compiler. Indicate the
 version of sed you used, the operating system it was compiled for, and
 the nature of the problem. Various scripts in this file were written
 or contributed by:
 
 Al Aab <af137@freenet.toronto.on.ca> # "seders" list moderator
 Dale Dougherty <dale@songline.com> # author of "sed & awk"
 Carlos Duarte <cdua@algos.inesc.pt> # author of "do it with sed"
 Eric Pement <epement@jpusa.chi.il.us> # author of this document
 S.G.Ravenhall <S.G.Ravenhall@open.ac.uk> # great de-html script
 Greg Ubben <gsu@romulus.ncsc.mil> # many contributions & much help

  • sed_einzeiler.txt
  • Zuletzt geändert: 2017/03/17 11:37
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